Document


 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 8-K
 
CURRENT REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of report (Date of earliest event reported): December 17, 2019
 
Sprout Social, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
 
Delaware
001-39156
27-2404165
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation)
(Commission
File Number)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
131 South Dearborn St., Suite 700
Chicago, Illinois
60603
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(Zip Code)
(866) 878-3231
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Not applicable
(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed Since Last Report)
 
Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:
Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock,
$0.0001 par value per share
SPT
Nasdaq Capital Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).
Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
 





Item 5.03. Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.
On December 17, 2019, Sprout Social, Inc. (the “Company”) filed its amended and restated certificate of incorporation (the “Restated Certificate”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware in connection with the closing of the initial public offering (the “IPO”) of shares of its Class A common stock. The Company’s board of directors and stockholders previously approved the Restated Certificate to be effective subject to and immediately prior to the closing of the IPO.
The Restated Certificate amends and restates the Company’s certificate of incorporation in its entirety to, among other things: (i) fix the authorized number of shares of capital stock at 1,035,000,000, consisting of (x) 1,000,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, (y) 25,000,000 shares of Class B common stock and (z) 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock that may be issued from time to time by the Company’s board of directors in one or more series; (ii) eliminate all references to the previously existing series of preferred stock; (iii) eliminate all references to the previously existing common stock; (iv) establish a classified board of directors, divided into three classes, each of whose members will serve for staggered three-year terms; (v) provide that directors may be removed from office only for cause and only upon the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority in voting power of the Company’s capital stock entitled to vote; (vi) eliminate the ability of the Company’s stockholders to take action by written consent in lieu of a meeting; (vii) eliminate the ability of the Company’s stockholders to call special meetings; and (viii) designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware to be the sole and exclusive forum for certain actions, including, but not limited to, derivative actions or proceedings brought on behalf of the Company or actions asserting claims of breach of a fiduciary duty owned by, or other wrongdoing by, any of the Company’s directors, officers, employees or agents to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, provided that the exclusive forum provision will not apply to apply to claims arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or other federal securities laws for which there is exclusive federal or concurrent federal and state jurisdiction.
The foregoing description of the amendments made by the Restated Certificate is qualified by reference to the Restated Certificate, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 3.1 and is incorporated herein by reference.
On December 17, 2019, in connection with the closing of the IPO, amended and restated bylaws of the Company (the “Amended and Restated Bylaws”), previously approved by the Company’s board of directors and stockholders to become effective immediately prior to the closing of the IPO, became effective. The Amended and Restated Bylaws amend and restate the Company’s bylaws in their entirety to, among other things: (i) establish procedures relating to the presentation of stockholder proposals at stockholder meetings; (ii) establish procedures relating to the nomination of directors; and (iii) conform to the amended provisions of the Restated Certificate.
The foregoing description of the amendments made in the Amended and Restated Bylaws is qualified by reference to the Amended and Restated Bylaws, a copy of which is attached hereto as Exhibit 3.2 and is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 9.01. Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(d)
Exhibits.
Exhibit No.
 
Description
3.1*
 
3.2*
 
*
Filed herewith.




SIGNATURE
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.
SPROUT SOCIAL, INC.
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Heidi Jonas
Name:
Heidi Jonas
Title:
General Counsel and Secretary
Date: December 17, 2019


Exhibit
Exhibit 3.1

AMENDED AND RESTATED
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION OF
SPROUT SOCIAL, INC.
Sprout Social, Inc., a corporation organized and existing under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), hereby certifies as follows:
1.    The name of this corporation is Sprout Social, Inc. The date of the filing of its original certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware was April 21, 2010.
2.    This Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, which restates, integrates and further amends the certificate of incorporation of this corporation as heretofore amended and restated, has been duly adopted by the corporation in accordance with Sections 242 and 245 of the DGCL and has been adopted by the requisite vote of the stockholders of the corporation, acting by written consent in lieu of a meeting in accordance with Section 228 of the DGCL.
3.    The certificate of incorporation of this corporation is hereby amended and restated in its entirety to read as follows:
ARTICLE I
NAME
The name of the corporation is “Sprout Social, Inc.” (hereinafter called the “Corporation”).
ARTICLE II
REGISTERED OFFICE AND AGENT
The address of the Corporation’s registered office in the State of Delaware is c/o Corporation Service Company, 251 Little Falls Drive, Wilmington New Castle County, Delaware 19808. The name of its registered agent at such address is Corporation Service Company.
ARTICLE III
PURPOSE
The purpose of the Corporation is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or any applicable successor act thereto, as the same may be amended from time to time (the “DGCL”).

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ARTICLE IV
CAPITAL STOCK
Immediately upon the filing of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (which, as used herein, shall mean the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended from time to time, including the terms of any certificate of designations of any series of Preferred Stock) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware (the “Effective Time”), automatically and without further action on the part of holders of capital stock of the Corporation, each share of the Corporation’s Common Stock outstanding or held by the Corporation as treasury stock as of immediately prior to the Effective Time (the “Old Common Stock”) shall be reclassified as, and become, one (1) share of Class A Common Stock, as such term is defined below (the “Reclassification”). The Reclassification shall occur automatically as of the Effective Time without any further action by the holders of the shares affected thereby and whether or not any certificates representing such shares are surrendered to the Corporation. Upon the Effective Time, each certificate that as of immediately prior to the Effective Time represented shares of Old Common Stock shall be deemed to represent an equivalent number of shares of Class A Common Stock. The Reclassification shall also apply to any outstanding securities or rights convertible into, or exchangeable or exercisable for, Old Common Stock of the Corporation. All share and per share amounts set forth in this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation have been revised to reflect the Reclassification.
The total number of shares of all classes of capital stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 1,035,000,000 shares, consisting of 1,000,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class A Common Stock”), 25,000,000 shares of Class B Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Class B Common Stock”), and 10,000,000 shares of Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Preferred Stock”). The number of authorized shares of Class A Common Stock, Class B Common Stock or Preferred Stock may be increased or decreased (but not below (i) the number of shares thereof then outstanding and (ii) with respect to the Class A Common Stock, the number of shares of Class A Common Stock reserved pursuant to Section 8 of Part A of this Article IV) by the affirmative vote of the holders of capital stock representing a majority of the voting power of all the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote thereon irrespective of the provisions of Section 242(b)(2) of the DGCL.
The following is a statement of the designations and the powers, preferences, privileges and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof in respect of each class of capital stock of the Corporation.
A.    CLASS A COMMON STOCK AND CLASS B COMMON STOCK.
Unless otherwise indicated, references to “Sections” or “Subsections” in this Part A of this Article IV refer to sections and subsections of Part A of this Article IV.
1.    Equal Status; General. Except as otherwise provided in this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or required by applicable law, shares of Class A Common Stock and

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Class B Common Stock shall have the same rights, privileges and powers, rank equally (including as to dividends and distributions, and upon any liquidation, dissolution, distribution of assets or winding up of the Corporation), share ratably and be identical in all respects and as to all matters. The voting, dividend, liquidation and other rights, powers and preferences of the holders of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock are subject to and qualified by the rights, powers and preferences of the holders of the Preferred Stock of any series as may be designated by the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board”) upon any issuance of the Preferred Stock of any series.
2.    Voting. Except as otherwise required by applicable law, at all meetings of stockholders and on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders of the Corporation generally, each holder of Class A Common Stock, as such, shall have the right to one (1) vote per share of Class A Common Stock held of record by such holder and each holder of Class B Common Stock, as such, shall have the right to ten (10) votes per share of Class B Common Stock held of record by such holder. Except as otherwise required by applicable law or provided in this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, as such, shall (a) at all times vote together as a single class on all matters (including the election of directors) submitted to a vote of the stockholders of the Corporation generally, (b) be entitled to notice of any stockholders’ meeting in accordance with the Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Corporation (as the same may be amended and/or restated from time to time, the “Bylaws”), and (c) be entitled to vote upon such matters and in such manner as may be provided by applicable law; provided, however, that, except as otherwise required by applicable law, holders of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, as such, shall not be entitled to vote on any amendment to this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation that relates solely to the terms of one or more outstanding series of Preferred Stock if the holders of such affected series are entitled, either separately or together with the holders of one or more other such series, to vote thereon pursuant to this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or applicable law. There shall be no cumulative voting.
3.    Dividend and Distribution Rights. Shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock shall be treated equally, identically and ratably, on a per share basis, with respect to any dividends or distributions as may be declared and paid from time to time by the Board out of any assets of the Corporation legally available therefor; provided, however, that in the event a dividend is paid in the form of shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock (or rights to acquire, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, such shares), then holders of Class A Common Stock shall be entitled to receive shares of Class A Common Stock (or rights to acquire, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, such shares, as the case may be), and holders of Class B Common Stock shall be entitled to receive shares of Class B Common Stock (or rights to acquire, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, such shares, as the case may be), with holders of shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock receiving, on a per share basis, an identical number of shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock (or rights to acquire, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for, such shares, as the case may be), as applicable. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Board may pay or make a disparate dividend or distribution per share of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock (whether in the amount of such dividend or distribution payable per share, the form in which such dividend or

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distribution is payable, the timing of the payment, or otherwise) if such disparate dividend or distribution is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.
4.    Subdivisions, Combinations or Reclassifications. Shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock may not be subdivided, combined or reclassified unless the shares of the other class is concurrently therewith proportionately subdivided, combined or reclassified in a manner that maintains the same proportionate equity ownership between the holders of the outstanding Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock on the record date for such subdivision, combination or reclassification; provided, however, that shares of one such class may be subdivided, combined or reclassified in a different or disproportionate manner if such subdivision, combination or reclassification is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.
5.    Liquidation, Dissolution or Winding Up. Subject to the preferential or other rights of any holders of Preferred Stock then outstanding, upon the dissolution, distribution of assets, liquidation or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary, holders of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock will be entitled to receive ratably all assets of the Corporation available for distribution to its stockholders unless disparate or different treatment of the shares of each such class with respect to distributions upon any such liquidation, dissolution, distribution of assets or winding up is approved by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, each voting separately as a class.
6.    Certain Transactions.
6.1    Merger or Consolidation. In the case of any distribution or payment in respect of the shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock, or any consideration into which such shares are converted, upon the consolidation or merger of the Corporation with or into any other entity, such distribution, payment or consideration that the holders of shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock have the right to receive, or the right to elect to receive, shall be made ratably on a per share basis among the holders of the Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock as a single class; provided, however, that shares of such classes may receive, or have the right to elect to receive, different or disproportionate consideration in connection with such consolidation, merger or other transaction if the only difference in the per share consideration to the holders of the Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock is that any securities distributed to the holder of, or issuable upon the conversion of, a share of Class B Common Stock have ten (10) times the voting power of any securities distributed to the holder of, or issuable upon the conversion of, a share of Class A Common Stock.
6.2    Third-Party Tender or Exchange Offers. The Corporation may not enter into any agreement pursuant to which a third party may by tender or exchange offer acquire any shares of Class A Common Stock or Class B Common Stock unless the holders of (a) the Class A Common Stock shall have the right to receive, or the right to elect to receive, the same form of consideration and the same amount of consideration on a per share basis as the holders of the Class B Common

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Stock would receive, or have the right to elect to receive, and (b) the Class B Common Stock shall have the right to receive, or the right to elect to receive, the same form of consideration and the same amount of consideration on a per share basis as the holders of the Class A Common Stock would receive, or have the right to elect to receive; provided, however, that shares of such classes may receive, or have the right to elect to receive, different or disproportionate consideration in connection with such tender or exchange offer if the only difference in the per share consideration to the holders of the Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock is that any securities exchanged for a share of Class B Common Stock have ten (10) times the voting power of any securities exchanged for a share of Class A Common Stock.
7.    Conversion.
7.1    Optional Conversion of Class B Common Stock. Each share of Class B Common Stock shall be convertible into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock at the option of the holder thereof at any time upon written notice to the Corporation (an “Optional Class B Conversion Event”). Before any holder of Class B Common Stock shall be entitled to convert any shares of Class B Common Stock into shares of Class A Common Stock, such holder shall surrender the certificate or certificates therefor (if any), duly endorsed, at the principal corporate office of the Corporation or of any transfer agent for the Class B Common Stock, and shall provide written notice to the Corporation at its principal corporate office, of such conversion election and shall state therein the name or names (i) in which the certificate or certificates representing the shares of Class A Common Stock into which the shares of Class B Common Stock are so converted are to be issued (if such shares of Class A Common Stock are certificated) or (ii) in which such shares of Class A Common Stock are to be registered in book-entry form (if such shares of Class A Common Stock are uncertificated). If the shares of Class A Common Stock into which the shares of Class B Common Stock are to be converted are to be issued in a name or names other than the name of the holder of the shares of Class B Common Stock being converted, such notice shall be accompanied by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Corporation, duly executed by the holder. The Corporation shall, as soon as practicable thereafter, issue and deliver at such office to such holder, or to the nominee or nominees of such holder, a certificate or certificates representing the number of shares of Class A Common Stock to which such holder shall be entitled upon such conversion (if such shares of Class A Common Stock are certificated) or shall register such shares of Class A Common Stock in book-entry form (if such shares of Class A Common Stock are uncertificated). Such conversion shall be deemed to be effective immediately prior to the close of business on the date of such surrender of the shares of Class B Common Stock to be converted following or contemporaneously with the provision of written notice of such conversion election as required by this Subsection 7.1, the shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon such conversion shall be deemed to be outstanding as of such time, and the Person or Persons entitled to receive the shares of Class A Common Stock issuable upon such conversion shall be deemed to be the record holder or holders of such shares of Class A Common Stock as of such time. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, shares of Class B Common Stock represented by a lost, stolen or destroyed stock certificate may be converted pursuant to an Optional Class B Conversion Event if the holder thereof notifies the Corporation or its transfer agent that such certificate has been lost, stolen or destroyed and makes an affidavit of that fact acceptable to

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the Corporation and executes an agreement acceptable to the Corporation to indemnify the Corporation from any loss incurred by it in connection with such certificate.
7.2    Automatic Conversion of Class B Common Stock. Each share of Class B Common Stock shall automatically convert into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock upon the occurrence of an event described below (a “Mandatory Class B Conversion Event”):
(a)    Transfers. Each share of Class B Common Stock shall automatically, without further action by the Corporation or the holder thereof, convert into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock upon the occurrence of a Transfer (as defined in Section 10), other than a Permitted Transfer (as defined in Section 10), of such share of Class B Common Stock.
(b)    Reduction in Voting Power. Each outstanding share of Class B Common Stock shall automatically, without further action by the Corporation or the holder thereof, convert into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock upon the first date on which the voting power of all then-outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock represents less than ten percent (10%) of the combined voting power of all then-outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock.
(c)    Affirmative Vote. Each outstanding share of Class B Common Stock shall automatically, without further action by the Corporation or the holder thereof, convert into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock upon the date specified by the holders of a majority of the then outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, voting as a separate class.
(d)    Final Conversion of Class B Common Stock. Each outstanding share of Class B Common Stock shall automatically, without further action by the Corporation or the holder thereof, convert into one (1) fully paid and nonassessable share of Class A Common Stock on the date that is seven (7) years following the filing of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.
7.3    Certificates. Each outstanding stock certificate (if shares are in certificated form) that, immediately prior to the occurrence of a Mandatory Class B Conversion Event, represented one or more shares of Class B Common Stock subject to such Mandatory Class B Conversion Event shall, upon such Mandatory Class B Conversion Event, be deemed to represent an equal number of shares of Class A Common Stock, without the need for surrender or exchange thereof. The Corporation shall, upon the request of any holder whose shares of Class B Common Stock have been converted into shares of Class A Common Stock as a result of an Optional Class B Conversion Event or a Mandatory Class B Conversion Event (either of the foregoing, a “Conversion Event”) and upon surrender by such holder to the Corporation of the outstanding certificate(s) formerly representing such holder’s shares of Class B Common Stock, if any (or, in the case of any lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, upon such holder providing an affidavit of that fact acceptable to the Corporation and executing an agreement acceptable to the Corporation to indemnify the Corporation from any loss incurred by it in connection with such certificate), issue

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and deliver to such holder (or such other Person specified pursuant to Subsection 7.1) certificate(s) representing the shares of Class A Common Stock into which such holder’s shares of Class B Common Stock were converted as a result of such Conversion Event (if such shares are certificated) or, if such shares are uncertificated, register such shares in book-entry form. Each share of Class B Common Stock that is converted pursuant to Subsection 7.1 or 7.2 shall thereupon automatically be retired and shall not be available for reissuance.
7.4    Policies and Procedures. The Corporation may, from time to time, establish such policies and procedures, not in violation of applicable law or the other provisions of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws of the Corporation, relating to the conversion of the Class B Common Stock into Class A Common Stock, as it may deem necessary or advisable in connection therewith. If the Corporation has reason to believe that a Transfer or other Conversion Event giving rise to a conversion of shares of Class B Common Stock into Class A Common Stock has occurred but has not theretofore been reflected on the books of the Corporation (or in book-entry as maintained by the transfer agent of the Corporation), the Corporation may request that the holder of such shares furnish affidavits or other evidence to the Corporation as the Corporation deems necessary to determine whether a conversion of shares of Class B Common Stock to Class A Common Stock has occurred, and if such holder does not within ten (10) days after the date of such request furnish sufficient evidence to the Corporation (in the manner provided in the request) to enable the Corporation to determine that no such conversion has occurred, any such shares of Class B Common Stock, to the extent not previously converted, shall be automatically converted into shares of Class A Common Stock and the same shall thereupon be registered on the books and records of the Corporation (or in book-entry as maintained by the transfer agent of the Corporation). In connection with any action of stockholders taken at a meeting, the stock ledger of the Corporation (or in book-entry as maintained by the transfer agent of the Corporation) shall be presumptive evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders and the class or classes or series of shares held by each such stockholder and the number of shares of each class or classes or series held by such stockholder.
8.    Reservation of Stock. The Corporation shall at all times reserve and keep available out of its authorized but unissued shares of Class A Common Stock, solely for the purpose of effecting the conversion of the shares of Class B Common Stock, such number of shares of Class A Common Stock as shall from time to time be sufficient to effect the conversion of all outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock into shares of Class A Common Stock.
9.    Protective Provision. The Corporation shall not, whether by merger, consolidation or otherwise, amend, alter, repeal or waive any provision of Part A of this Article IV (or adopt any provision inconsistent therewith), unless such action is first approved by the affirmative vote (or written consent) of the holders of a majority of the then-outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, voting as a separate class, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law, this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws.
10.    Definitions. For purposes of this Article IV:
Affiliate” means, with respect to any Person, any other Person or entity that directly or indirectly, controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with such Person.

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Change of Control Transaction” means (i) the sale, lease, exchange, or other disposition (other than liens and encumbrances created in the ordinary course of business, including liens or encumbrances to secure indebtedness for borrowed money that are approved by the Board, so long as no foreclosure occurs in respect of any such lien or encumbrance) of all or substantially all of the Corporation’s property and assets (which shall for such purpose include the property and assets of any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Corporation), provided that any sale, lease, exchange or other disposition of property or assets exclusively between or among the Corporation and any direct or indirect subsidiary or subsidiaries of the Corporation shall not be deemed a “Change of Control Transaction”; (ii) the merger, consolidation, business combination, or other similar transaction of the Corporation with any other entity, other than a merger, consolidation, business combination, or other similar transaction that would result in the voting securities of the Corporation outstanding immediately prior thereto continuing to represent (either by remaining outstanding or by being converted into voting securities of the surviving entity or its parent) more than fifty percent (50%) of the total voting power represented by the voting securities of the Corporation and more than fifty percent (50%) of the total number of outstanding shares of the Corporation’s capital stock, in each case as outstanding immediately after such merger, consolidation, business combination, or other similar transaction, and the stockholders of the Corporation immediately prior to the merger, consolidation, business combination, or other similar transaction continuing to own voting securities of the Corporation, the surviving entity or its parent immediately following the merger, consolidation, business combination, or other similar transaction in substantially the same proportions (vis a vis each other) as such stockholders owned of the voting securities of the Corporation immediately prior to the transaction; and (iii) a recapitalization, liquidation, dissolution, or other similar transaction involving the Corporation, other than a recapitalization, liquidation, dissolution, or other similar transaction that would result in the voting securities of the Corporation outstanding immediately prior thereto continuing to represent (either by remaining outstanding or being converted into voting securities of the surviving entity or its parent) more than fifty percent (50%) of the total voting power represented by the voting securities of the Corporation and more than fifty percent (50%) of the total number of outstanding shares of the Corporation’s capital stock, in each case as outstanding immediately after such recapitalization, liquidation, dissolution or other similar transaction, and the stockholders of the Corporation immediately prior to the recapitalization, liquidation, dissolution or other similar transaction continuing to own voting securities of the Corporation, the surviving entity or its parent immediately following the recapitalization, liquidation, dissolution or other similar transaction in substantially the same proportions (vis a vis each other) as such stockholders owned of the voting securities of the Corporation immediately prior to the transaction.
Disability” means permanent and total disability such that the natural person holder of Class B Common Stock is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or which has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than twelve (12) months as determined by a licensed medical practitioner. In the event of a dispute whether the natural person holder of Class B Common Stock has suffered a Disability, no Disability of the natural person holder of Class B Common Stock shall be deemed to have occurred unless and until an affirmative ruling regarding such Disability has been made by a court of competent jurisdiction, and such ruling has become final and non-appealable.

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Family Member” means with respect to any natural person who is a Qualified Stockholder (a) the spouse of such Qualified Stockholder, (b) the parents, grandparents, lineal descendants, siblings or lineal descendants of siblings of such Qualified Stockholder or (c) the parents, grandparents, lineal descendants, siblings or lineal descendants of siblings of the spouse of such Qualified Stockholder. Lineal descendants shall include adopted persons, but only so long as they are adopted during minority.
Fiduciary” means a Person who (a) is an executor, personal representative, administrator, trustee, manager, managing member, general partner, director, officer or any other agent of a Person and (b) manages, controls or otherwise has decision-making authority with respect to such Person.
Founder” means Justyn Howard, Gil Lara, Aaron Rankin or Peter Soung.
Founder Qualified Stockholder” means a Qualified Stockholder who is also a Founder.
Liquidation Event” means any liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of the Corporation, whether voluntary or involuntary, or any Change of Control Transaction.
Parent” of an entity means any entity that directly or indirectly owns or controls a majority of the voting power of the voting securities of such entity.
Permitted Entity” means with respect to a Qualified Stockholder:
(a) a Permitted Trust solely for the current benefit of (i) such Qualified Stockholder, (ii) one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholder and/or (iii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder;
(b) any general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, public benefit corporation or other entity exclusively owned by (i) one or more Qualified Stockholders, (ii) one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholders and/or (iii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholders;
(c) the executor or personal representative of the estate of a Qualified Stockholder upon the death of such Qualified Stockholder solely to the extent the executor or personal representative is acting in the capacity of executor or personal representative of such estate;
(d) a revocable living trust, which revocable living trust is itself both a Permitted Trust and a Qualified Stockholder, during the lifetime of the natural person grantor of such trust; or
(e) a revocable living trust (including any irrevocable administrative trust resulting from the death of the natural person grantor of such trust) which trust is itself both a Permitted Trust and a Qualified Stockholder, following the death of the natural person grantor of such trust, solely to the extent that such shares are held in such trust pending distribution to the beneficiaries designated in such trust.

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Except as explicitly provided for herein, a Permitted Entity of a Qualified Stockholder shall not cease to be a Permitted Entity of that Qualified Stockholder solely by reason of the death of that Qualified Stockholder.
Permitted Transfer” means, and is restricted to, any Transfer of a share of Class B Common Stock:
(a) by a Qualified Stockholder (or, in the case of a deceased Founder Qualified Stockholder, the executor or personal representative of the estate of such deceased Founder Qualified Stockholder) to (i) any Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder so long as (A) such Qualified Stockholder continues to exercise Voting Control over such shares, (B) a Fiduciary of such Permitted Entity who is selected by such Qualified Stockholder, and whom such Qualified Stockholder has the power to remove and replace with another Fiduciary selected by such Qualified Stockholder, exercises Voting Control over such shares, or (C) a Founder or Family Member of such Founder exercises Voting Control over such shares; (ii) any foundation or similar entity or any Qualified Charity so long as (A) such Qualified Stockholder continues to exercise Voting Control over such shares, (B) a Fiduciary of such foundation, similar entity or Qualified Charity who is selected by such Qualified Stockholder, and whom such Qualified Stockholder has the power to remove and replace with another Fiduciary selected by such Qualified Stockholder, exercises Voting Control over such shares, or (C) a Founder or Family Member of such Founder exercises Voting Control over such shares; (iii) any Permitted Entity of a Family Member of such Qualified Stockholder so long as a Founder or Family Member of such Founder exercises Voting Control over such shares; or (iv) any other Qualified Stockholder;
(b) to a trust or trusts for the sole current benefit of a Founder and/or one or more of such Founder’s Family Members so long as a Founder or Family Member of such Founder exercises Voting Control over such shares; provided, however, that such Transfer to a trust shall qualify as a “Permitted Transfer” notwithstanding that a remainder interest in such trust is for the benefit of any Person other than such Founder or Founder’s Family Members, until such time as such trust is for the current benefit of such Person;
(c) to any general partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company, corporation, public benefit corporation or other entity (A) exclusively owned by (i) one or more Qualified Stockholders, (ii) one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholders and/or (iii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholders, and (B) of which a Founder or Family Member of such Founder exercises Voting Control over such shares;
(d) by a Permitted Entity of a Qualified Stockholder (or, in the case of a deceased Founder Qualified Stockholder, the executor or personal representative of the estate of such deceased Founder Qualified Stockholder) to (i) such Qualified Stockholder or one or more Family Members of such Qualified Stockholder, (ii) any other Permitted Entity of such Qualified Stockholder or (iii) any Permitted Entity of a Family Member of such Qualified Stockholder;

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(e) any Transfer of shares of Class B Common Stock to a broker or other nominee; provided that the transferor, immediately following such Transfer, retains (1) Voting Control, (2) control over the disposition of such shares, and (3) the economic consequences of ownership of such shares; or
(f) any Transfer approved in advance by the Board, or a duly authorized committee of the Board, upon a determination that such Transfer is consistent with the purposes of the foregoing provisions of this definition of “Permitted Transfer.”
For the avoidance of doubt, the direct Transfer of any share or shares of Class B Common Stock by a holder thereof to any other Person shall qualify as a “Permitted Transfer” within the meaning of this Section, if such Transfer could have been completed indirectly through one or more transactions involving more than one Transfer, so long as each Transfer in such transaction or transactions would otherwise have qualified as a “Permitted Transfer” within the meaning of this Section. For the further avoidance of doubt, a Transfer may qualify as a “Permitted Transfer” within the meaning of this Section under any one or more than one of the clauses of this Section as may be applicable to such Transfer, without regard to any proviso in, or requirement of, any other clause(s) of this Section.
Permitted Transferee” means a transferee of shares of Class B Common Stock received in a Transfer that constitutes a Permitted Transfer.
Permitted Trust” means a bona fide trust where each trustee is (a) a Qualified Stockholder; (b) a Family Member of a Qualified Stockholder; or (c) a professional in the business of providing trustee services, including private professional fiduciaries, trust companies, accounting, legal or financial advisor, or bank trust departments.
Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, limited or general partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or other entity, whether domestic or foreign.
Qualified Charity” means a domestic U.S. charitable organization, contributions to which are deductible for federal income, estate, gift and generation skipping transfer tax purposes.
Qualified Stockholder” means:
(a) any registered holder of a share of Class B Common Stock as of 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the Reclassification Date;
(b) the initial registered holder of any shares of Class B Common Stock that are originally issued by the Corporation after the Reclassification Date pursuant to the exercise or conversion of options or warrants or settlement of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) or restricted stock that, in each case, are outstanding as of the Reclassification Date;

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(c) the initial record holder of any shares of Class B Common Stock that are originally issued by the Corporation after the Effective Time upon the approval of the Board or the Compensation Committee of the Board;
(d) the initial record holder of any shares of Class B Common Stock that are originally issued by the Corporation after the Effective Time pursuant to the conversion, exchange or exercise of securities issued pursuant to the preceding subclause (b);
(e) each natural Person who Transferred shares of or equity awards for Class B Common Stock (including any option or warrant exercisable or convertible into, or any RSU or restricted stock that can be settled in shares of, Class B Common Stock) to a Permitted Entity;
(f) any Founder or Family Member of such Founder; and
(g) a Permitted Transferee.
Reclassification Date” means the date of the consummation of the Corporation’s initial public offering of shares of its Class A Common Stock.
Transfer” of a share of Class B Common Stock means, directly or indirectly, any sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, hypothecation or other transfer or disposition of such share or any legal or beneficial interest in such share, whether or not for value and whether voluntary or involuntary or by operation of law (including by merger, consolidation or otherwise), including, without limitation, the transfer of a share of Class B Common Stock to a broker or other nominee or the transfer of, or entering into a binding agreement with respect to, Voting Control over such share by proxy or otherwise. A Transfer shall also be deemed to have occurred with respect to a share of Class B Common Stock beneficially held by (x) an entity that is a Permitted Entity if there occurs any act or circumstance that causes such entity to no longer be a Permitted Entity or (y) an entity that is a Qualified Stockholder if there occurs a Transfer on a cumulative basis, from and after the Reclassification Date, of a majority of the voting power of the voting securities of such entity or any direct or indirect Parent of such entity. In addition, for the avoidance of doubt, a Transfer shall be deemed to have occurred if a holder that is a partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company or corporation distributes or otherwise transfers its shares of Class B Common Stock to its partners, stockholders, members or other equity owners. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the following shall not be considered a Transfer:
(a) the granting of a revocable proxy to officers or directors of the Corporation at the request of the Board in connection with (i) actions to be taken at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, or (ii) any other action of the stockholders permitted by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation;
(b) entering into a voting trust, agreement or arrangement (with or without granting a proxy) solely with stockholders who are holders of Class B Common Stock, which voting trust, agreement or arrangement does not involve any payment of cash, securities or other property to the holder of the shares subject thereto other than the mutual promise to vote shares in a designated

12


manner; for the avoidance of doubt, any voting trust, agreement or arrangement entered into prior to the Reclassification Date shall not constitute a Transfer;
(c) the pledge of shares of Class B Common Stock by a stockholder that creates a mere security interest in such shares pursuant to a bona fide loan or indebtedness transaction for so long as such stockholder continues to exercise Voting Control over such pledged shares; provided, however, that a foreclosure on such shares or other similar action by the pledgee shall constitute a Transfer unless such foreclosure or similar action qualifies as a Permitted Transfer at such time;
(d) any change in the trustee(s) or the Person(s) and/or entity(ies) having or exercising Voting Control over shares of Class B Common Stock of a Permitted Entity, provided that following such change such Permitted Entity continues to be a Permitted Entity and a Founder or Family Member of such Founder continues to have Voting Control over the shares of Class B Common Stock held by such Permitted Entity;
(e) (1) the assignment, transfer, conveyance, hypothecation or other transfer or disposition of shares of Class B Common Stock by a Qualified Stockholder to a grantor retained annuity trust (a “GRAT”) for which the trustee is (A) such Qualified Stockholder, (B) a Family Member of such Qualified Stockholder, (C) a professional in the business of providing trustee services, including private professional fiduciaries, trust companies, accounting, legal or financial advisors, or bank trust departments, (D) an employee of the Corporation or a member of the Board or (E) solely in the case of any such trust established by a natural Person grantor, any other bona fide trustee; (2) the change in trustee for such a GRAT from one of the Persons identified in the foregoing subclauses (A) through (E) to another Person identified in the foregoing subclauses (A) through (E); and (3) the distribution of such shares of Class B Common Stock from such GRAT to such Qualified Stockholder (provided, however, that the distribution of shares of Class B Common Stock to any beneficiary of such GRAT except such Qualified Stockholder shall constitute a Transfer unless such distribution qualifies as a Permitted Transfer at such time);
(f) entering into a trading plan pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, with a broker or other nominee; provided, however, that a sale of such shares of Class B Common Stock pursuant to such plan shall constitute a “Transfer” at the time of such sale;
(g) granting of a proxy by a Founder, such Founder’s Permitted Entities or such Founder’s Permitted Transferees to any other Founder to exercise Voting Control of shares of Class B Common Stock owned directly or indirectly, beneficially and of record, by such Founder, such Founder’s Permitted Entities or such Founder’s Permitted Transferees, and the exercise of such proxy by such other Founder;
(h) in connection with a Change of Control Transaction that has been approved by the Board, (1) the entering into a support, voting, tender or similar agreement or arrangement, (2) the granting of any proxy and/or (3) the tendering of any shares in any tender or exchange offer for all of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, in each case that has also been approved by the Board;

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(i) due to the fact that the spouse of any holder of shares of Class B Common Stock possesses or obtains an interest in such holder’s shares of Class B Common Stock arising solely by reason of the application of the community property laws of any jurisdiction, so long as no other event or circumstance shall exist or have occurred that constitutes a “Transfer” of such shares of Class B Common Stock; provided that any transfer of shares by any holder of shares of Class B Common Stock to such holder’s spouse, including a transfer in connection with a divorce proceeding, domestic relations order or similar legal requirement, shall constitute a “Transfer” of such shares of Class B Common Stock unless otherwise exempt from the definition of Transfer; and
(j) entering into a support, voting, tender or similar agreement, arrangement or understanding (with or without granting a proxy) in connection with a Liquidation Event or consummating the actions or transactions contemplated therein (including, without limitation, tendering shares of Class B Common Stock in connection with a Liquidation Event, the consummation of a Liquidation Event or the sale, assignment, transfer, conveyance, hypothecation or other transfer or disposition of shares of Class B Common Stock or any legal or beneficial interest in shares of Class B Common Stock in connection with a Liquidation Event), provided that such Liquidation Event was approved by the Board.
Voting Control” means, with respect to a share of Class B Common Stock, the power (whether exclusive or shared) to vote or direct the voting of such share by proxy, voting agreement or otherwise.
B.    PREFERRED STOCK
Preferred Stock may be issued from time to time in one or more series, each of such series to have such terms as stated or expressed herein and in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issue of such series adopted by the Board as hereinafter provided. Any shares of Preferred Stock which may be redeemed, purchased or acquired by the Corporation may be reissued except as otherwise provided by law.
Authority is hereby expressly granted to the Board from time to time to issue the Preferred Stock in one or more series, and in connection with the creation of any such series, by adopting a resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of the shares thereof and by filing a certificate of designations relating thereto in accordance with the DGCL, to determine and fix the number of shares of such series and such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including without limitation thereof, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, as shall be stated and expressed in such resolutions, all to the full extent now or hereafter permitted by the DGCL. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the resolutions providing for issuance of any series of Preferred Stock may provide that such series shall be superior or rank equally or be junior to any other series of Preferred Stock to the extent permitted by law.

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ARTICLE V
AMENDMENT OF THE CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION
The Corporation reserves the right to amend, alter, change, adopt or repeal any provision contained in this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, in the manner now or hereafter prescribed by statute, and all rights conferred upon stockholders herein are granted subject to this reservation; provided, however, that, notwithstanding any other provision of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or any provision of law that might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, but in addition to any vote of the holders of shares of any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation required by law or by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the voting power of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, shall be required to amend or repeal, or adopt any provision of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation inconsistent with Articles IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII; provided further, so long as any shares of Class B Common Stock remain outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the prior affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class B Common Stock, voting as a separate class, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law or this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, directly or indirectly, whether by amendment, or through merger, recapitalization, consolidation or otherwise amend, alter, change, repeal or adopt any provision of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (1) in a manner that is inconsistent with, or that otherwise alters or changes, any of the voting, conversion, dividend or liquidation provisions of the shares of Class B Common Stock or other rights, powers, preferences or privileges of the shares of Class B Common Stock; (2) to provide for each share of Class A Common Stock to have more than one (1) vote per share or any rights to a separate class vote of the holders of shares of Class A Common Stock other than as provided by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or required by the DGCL; or (3) to otherwise adversely impact the rights, powers, preferences or privileges of the shares of Class B Common Stock in a manner that is disparate from the manner in which it affects the rights, powers, preferences or privileges of the shares of Class A Common Stock; provided further, so long as any shares of Class A Common Stock remain outstanding, the Corporation shall not, without the prior affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A Common Stock, voting as a separate class, in addition to any other vote required by applicable law or this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, directly or indirectly, whether by amendment, or through merger, recapitalization, consolidation or otherwise amend, alter, change, repeal or adopt any provision of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (1) in a manner that is inconsistent with, or that otherwise alters or changes the powers, preferences, or special rights of the shares of Class A Common Stock so as to affect them adversely; or (2) to provide for each share of Class B Common Stock to have more than ten (10) votes per share or any rights to a separate class vote of the holders of shares of Class B Common Stock other than as provided by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or required by the DGCL. For the avoidance of doubt, nothing in the immediately preceding provisos shall limit the rights of the Board as specified in Article IV, Section B or Article VI of this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation.

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ARTICLE VI
AMENDMENT OF THE BYLAWS
In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred upon it by the DGCL, and subject to the terms of any series of Preferred Stock, the Board shall have the power to adopt, amend, alter or repeal the Bylaws of the Corporation by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present at any regular or special meeting of the Board at which a quorum is present. The stockholders may not adopt, amend, alter or repeal the Bylaws of the Corporation, or adopt any provision inconsistent therewith, unless such action is approved, in addition to any other vote required by this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, by the affirmative vote of the holders of shares representing a majority of the votes that all the stockholders would be entitled to cast in any annual election of directors.
ARTICLE VII
CORPORATE OPPORTUNITIES
The Corporation renounces any interest or expectancy of the Corporation in, or in being offered an opportunity to participate in, any Excluded Opportunity. An “Excluded Opportunity” is any matter, transaction or interest that is presented to, or acquired, created or developed by, or which otherwise comes into the possession of, any director of the Corporation who is not an employee or officer of the Corporation or any of its subsidiaries (a “Covered Person”), unless such matter, transaction or interest is presented to, or acquired, created or developed by, or otherwise comes into the possession of, a Covered Person expressly and solely in such Covered Person’s capacity as a director of the Corporation.
ARTICLE VIII
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
This Article VIII is inserted for the management of the business and for the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation.
(A) General Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board, except as otherwise provided by law.
(B) Number of Directors; Election of Directors. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, the number of the directors of the Corporation shall be fixed from time to time by resolution of the Board.
(C) Classes of Directors. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, the Board shall be divided into three classes, designated Class I, Class II and Class III. Each class shall consist, as nearly as may be possible, of one third of the total number of directors constituting the entire Board. The Board is authorized to assign members of the Board already in office to Class I, Class II or Class III at the time such classification becomes effective.

16


(D) Terms of Office. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, each director shall serve for a term ending on the date of the third annual meeting of stockholders following the annual meeting of stockholders at which such director was elected; provided that each director initially assigned to Class I shall serve for a term expiring at the Corporation’s first annual meeting of stockholders held following the time at which the initial classification of the Board becomes effective; each director initially assigned to Class II shall serve for a term expiring at the Corporation’s second annual meeting of stockholders held following the time at which the initial classification of the Board becomes effective; and each director initially assigned to Class III shall serve for a term expiring at the Corporation’s third annual meeting of stockholders held following the time at which the initial classification of the Board becomes effective; provided further, that the term of each director shall continue until the election and qualification of his or her successor and be subject to his or her earlier death, disqualification, resignation or removal. The annual meeting of stockholders, for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting, shall be held at such place, if any, either within or without the State of Delaware, on such date, and at such time as the Board, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer shall fix.
(E) Vacancies. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any newly created directorship that results from an increase in the number of directors or any vacancy on the Board that results from the death, disability, resignation, disqualification or removal of any director or from any other cause shall be filled solely by the affirmative vote of a majority of the total number of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director and shall not be filled by the stockholders. Any director elected to fill a newly created directorship or vacancy in accordance with the preceding sentence shall hold office until the next annual meeting of stockholders held to elect the class of directors to which such director is elected and until his or her successor shall be elected and qualified, subject to his or her earlier death, disqualification, resignation or removal.
(F) Removal. Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any director or the entire Board may be removed from office at any time, but only for cause by the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of capital stock of the Corporation then entitled to vote at an election of directors.
(G) Committees. Pursuant to the Bylaws of the Corporation, the Board may establish one or more committees to which may be delegated any or all of the powers and duties of the Board to the full extent permitted by law.
(H) Stockholder Nominations and Introduction of Business. Advance notice of stockholder nominations for election of directors and other business to be brought by stockholders before a meeting of stockholders shall be given in the manner provided by the Bylaws.
(I) Preferred Stock Directors. During any period when the holders of any series of Preferred Stock have the right to elect additional directors as provided for or fixed pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof or any Preferred Stock Designation, then upon commencement and for the duration of the period during which such right continues: (i) the then otherwise total number of

17


authorized directors of the Corporation shall automatically be increased by such specified number of directors, and the holders of such Preferred Stock shall be entitled to elect the additional directors so provided for or fixed pursuant to said provisions, and (ii) each such additional director shall serve until such director’s successor shall have been duly elected and qualified, or until such director’s right to hold such office terminates pursuant to said provisions, whichever occurs earlier, subject to his earlier death, disqualification, resignation or removal. Except as otherwise provided for or fixed pursuant to the provisions of Article IV hereof or any Preferred Stock Designation, whenever the holders of any series of Preferred Stock having such right to elect additional directors are divested of such right pursuant to the provisions of such stock, all such additional directors elected by the holders of such stock, or elected or appointed to fill any vacancies resulting from the death, resignation, disqualification or removal of such additional directors shall automatically cease to be qualified as directors, the terms of office of all such directors shall forthwith terminate and the total authorized number of directors of the Corporation shall be reduced accordingly.
ARTICLE IX
ELECTION OF DIRECTORS
Unless and except to the extent that the Bylaws shall so require, the election of directors of the Corporation need not be by written ballot.
ARTICLE X
LIMITATION OF DIRECTOR LIABILITY
To the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL as the same exists or as may hereafter be amended, a director of the Corporation shall not be personally liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director; provided, however, that nothing contained in this Article X shall eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) pursuant to the provisions of Section 174 of the DGCL, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. No repeal or modification of this Article X shall apply to or have any adverse effect on any right or protection of, or any limitation of the liability of, a director of the Corporation existing at the time of such repeal or modification with respect to acts or omissions occurring prior to such repeal or modification.
ARTICLE XI
INDEMNIFICATION
The Corporation may indemnify, and advance expenses to, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any person who was or is a party to or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of

18


the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
ARTICLE XII
CONSENT OF STOCKHOLDERS IN LIEU OF MEETING
Subject to the terms of any series of Preferred Stock, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation must be effected at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders and may not be effected by written consent in lieu of a meeting.
ARTICLE XIII
SPECIAL MEETING OF STOCKHOLDERS
Special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the Board, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, and may not be called by another other Person or Persons. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of meeting.
ARTICLE XIV
FORUM SELECTION
Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery (the “Chancery Court”) of the State of Delaware (or, in the event that the Chancery Court does not have jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware or other state courts of the State of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by, or any other wrongdoing by, any current or former director, officer, other employee or stockholder of the Corporation, (3) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation or the Bylaws or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Chancery Court or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of the preceding sentence is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, be deemed to have consented to (a) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the preceding sentence and (b) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder. This provision will not apply to claims arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or other federal securities laws for which there is exclusive federal or concurrent federal and state jurisdiction. Any Person or entity

19


purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Article XIV.
[Remainder of Page Intentionally Left Blank]

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, this Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation has been executed this 17th day of December, 2019.
SPROUT SOCIAL, INC.
 
 
 
By:
 
/s/ Justyn Howard
 
 
Name: Justyn Howard
 
 
Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

Exhibit
Exhibit 3.2







AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
OF
SPROUT SOCIAL, INC.




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page

ARTICLE I STOCKHOLDERS
1

1.1
Place of Meetings
1

1.2
Annual Meeting
1

1.3
Special Meetings
1

1.4
Notice of Meetings
1

1.5
Voting List
2

1.6
Quorum
2

1.7
Adjournments
3

1.8
Voting and Proxies
3

1.9
Action at Meeting
3

1.10
Nomination of Directors
4

1.11
Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting
9

1.12
Conduct of Meetings
14

1.13
No Action by Consent in Lieu of a Meeting
15

 
 
 
ARTICLE II DIRECTORS
16

2.1
General Powers
16

2.2
Number, Election, Term and Qualification
16

2.3
Chairman of the Board; Vice Chairman of the Board
16

2.4
Terms of Office
16

2.5
Quorum
16

2.6
Action at Meeting
17

2.7
Removal
17

2.8
Newly Created Directorships; Vacancies
17

2.9
Resignation
17

2.10
Regular Meetings
17

2.11
Special Meetings
17

2.12
Notice of Special Meetings
17

2.13
Meetings by Conference Communications Equipment
18

2.14
Action by Consent
18

2.15
Committees
18

2.16
Compensation of Directors
19

 
 
 
ARTICLE III OFFICERS
19

3.1
Titles
19

3.2
Election
19

3.3
Qualification
19

3.4
Tenure
19

3.5
Resignation and Removal
19


i


3.6
Vacancies
20

3.7
President; Chief Executive Officer
20

3.8
Vice Presidents
20

3.9
Secretary and Assistant Secretaries
21

3.10
Treasurer and Assistant Treasurers
21

3.11
Salaries
22

3.12
Delegation of Authority
22

 
 
 
ARTICLE IV CAPITAL STOCK
22

4.1
Stock Certificates; Uncertificated Shares
22

4.2
Transfers
23

4.3
Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates
23

4.4
Record Date
24

4.5
Regulations
25

 
 
 
ARTICLE V GENERAL PROVISIONS
25

5.1
Fiscal Year
25

5.2
Corporate Seal
25

5.3
Waiver of Notice
25

5.4
Voting of Securities
25

5.5
Evidence of Authority
25

5.6
Certificate of Incorporation
26

5.7
Severability
26

5.8
Pronouns
26

5.9
Electronic Transmission
26

 
 
 
ARTICLE VI AMENDMENTS
26

 
 
ARTICLE VII INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCEMENT
26

7.1
Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other than Those by
 or in the Right of the Corporation
26

7.2
Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of
the Corporation
27

7.3
Authorization of Indemnification
28

7.4
Good Faith Defined
28

7.5
Right of Claimant to Bring Suit
29

7.6
Expenses Payable in Advance
29

7.7
Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses
30

7.8
Insurance
30

7.9
Certain Definitions
30

7.10
Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses
31

7.11
Limitation on Indemnification
31

7.12
Contract Rights
31


ii


ARTICLE I
STOCKHOLDERS
1.1    Place of Meetings. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at such place, if any, as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors (the “Board”) of Sprout Social, Inc. (the “Corporation”), the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer or, if not so designated, at the principal office of the Corporation.
1.2    Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting shall be held on a date and at a time designated by the Board, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer. The Board may postpone, recess, reschedule or cancel any previously scheduled annual meeting of stockholders.
1.3    Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by only the Board, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer, and may not be called by any other person or persons. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of meeting. The Corporation may postpone, reschedule or cancel any previously scheduled meeting of stockholders.
1.4    Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, notice of each meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation shall be effective if given by electronic transmission in accordance with the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). The notices of all meetings shall state the place, if any, date and time of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from



the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting). The notice of a special meeting shall state, in addition, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. If notice is given by mail, such notice shall be deemed given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. If notice is given by electronic transmission, such notice shall be deemed given at the time specified in Section 232 of the DGCL.
1.5    Voting List. The Corporation shall prepare, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the date of the meeting, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date), arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then such list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by this Section 1.5 or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders.
1.6    Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, at each meeting of stockholders the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of the capital stock of the Corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, however, that where a separate vote by a class or classes or series of capital

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stock is required by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of such class or classes or series of the capital stock of the Corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on such matter, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to the vote on such matter. A quorum, once established at a meeting, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum.
1.7    Adjournments. Any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned from time to time to any other time and to the same or some other place at which a meeting of stockholders may be held under these Bylaws by the Board, the chairman of the meeting or, if directed to be voted on by the chairman of the meeting, by a majority of the votes cast by stockholders present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote thereon, although less than a quorum. It shall not be necessary to notify any stockholder of any adjournment of thirty (30) days or less if the time and place of the adjourned meeting, and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, are announced at the meeting at which adjournment is taken, unless after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting (in which case the Board shall fix the same or an earlier date as the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record as of such date). At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting.
1.8    Voting and Proxies. Each stockholder of record entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may vote in person or may authorize another person or persons to vote for such stockholder by proxy. No such proxy shall be voted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy expressly provides for a longer period.
1.9    Action at Meeting. When a quorum is present at any meeting, any matter other than the election of directors to be voted upon by the stockholders at such meeting shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast by the holders of all of the shares of stock present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter (or if one or more

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class, classes or series of stock are entitled to vote as a separate class or series, then a majority of the votes cast by the holders of the shares of stock of such class, classes or series entitled to vote as a separate class or series present or represented by proxy at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter), except when a different vote is required by law, regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities, the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. When a quorum is present at any meeting, any election by stockholders of directors shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election.
1.10    Nomination of Directors.
(A)    Except for any directors entitled to be elected by the holders of preferred stock, at any meeting of stockholders, only persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures in this Section 1.10 shall be eligible for election as directors. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting of stockholders or a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting may be made (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any duly authorized committee thereof or (ii) by any stockholder of the Corporation who (x) timely complies with the notice procedures in Section 1.10(B), (y) is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of such notice and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting and (z) is entitled to vote at such meeting and on such election.
(B)    To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be received in writing by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation as follows: (i) in the case of an election of directors at an annual meeting of stockholders, not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (which date of the preceding year’s annual meeting shall, for purposes of the Corporation’s first annual meeting of stockholders after the initial public offering of the shares of Class A Common Stock of the Corporation, be deemed to have occurred on the date on May 15 2019); provided, however, that in the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than thirty (30) days, or delayed by more than seventy (70), from the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a

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stockholder’s notice must be so received not earlier than the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (A) the 90th day prior to such annual meeting and (B) the tenth day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting is first made; or (ii) in the case of an election of directors at a special meeting of stockholders, provided that directors are to be elected at such special meeting as set forth in the Corporation’s notice of meeting and provided further that the nomination made by the stockholder is for one of the director positions that the notice of meeting states will be filled at such special meeting, not earlier than the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to such special meeting and (y) the tenth day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such special meeting for the election of directors is first made. The number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at a meeting (or in the case of a stockholder giving the notice on behalf of a beneficial owner, the number of nominees a stockholder may nominate for election at the meeting on behalf of such beneficial owner) shall not exceed the number of directors to be elected at such meeting. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of a meeting (or the public disclosure thereof) commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice.
The stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth: (A) as to each proposed nominee (1) such person’s name, age, business address and, if known, residence address, (2) such person’s principal occupation or employment, (3) the class(es) and series and number of shares of stock of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned, beneficially or of record, by such person, (4) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among (x) the stockholder, the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made and the respective affiliates and associates of, or others acting in concert with, such stockholder and such beneficial owner, on the one hand, and (y) each proposed nominee, and his or her respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert with such nominee(s), on the other hand, including all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 of Regulation S-K if the stockholder making the nomination and any beneficial owner on whose behalf the nomination is made or any affiliate or associate thereof or person acting in concert

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therewith were the “registrant” for purposes of such Item and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant, and (5) any other information concerning such person that must be disclosed as to nominees in proxy solicitations pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”); and (B) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made (1) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the corporation’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (2) the class(es) and series and number of shares of stock of the corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned, beneficially or of record, by such stockholder and such beneficial owner, (3) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding between or among such stockholder and/or such beneficial owner and each proposed nominee and any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the nomination(s) are being made or who may participate in the solicitation of proxies in favor of electing such nominee(s), (4) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, swaps, profit interests, options, warrants, convertible securities, stock appreciation or similar rights, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into by, or on behalf of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner with respect to shares of stock of the Corporation, (5) any other information relating to such stockholder and such beneficial owner that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for the election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, (6) a representation that such stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and on such election and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person(s) named in its notice and (7) a representation whether such stockholder and/or such beneficial owner intends or is part of a group which intends (x) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock reasonably believed by such stockholder or such beneficial owner to be sufficient to elect the nominee (and such representation shall be included in any such proxy statement and form of proxy) and/or (y) otherwise to solicit proxies or votes from stockholders in support of such nomination

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(and such representation shall be included in any such solicitation materials). Not later than ten (10) days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, the information required by Items (A)(1)-(5) and (B)(1)-(5) of the prior sentence shall be supplemented by the stockholder giving the notice to provide updated information as of such record date. In addition, to be effective, the stockholder’s notice must be accompanied by the written consent of the proposed nominee to serve as a director if elected and to being named in the Corporation’s proxy statement and associated proxy card as a nominee of the stockholder. The Corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as the Corporation may reasonably require to, among other things, determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the Corporation or whether such nominee would be independent under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission and stock exchange rules and the Corporation’s publicly disclosed corporate governance guidelines, as applicable. A stockholder shall not have complied with this Section 1.10(B) if the stockholder (or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made) solicits or does not solicit, as the case may be, proxies or votes in support of such stockholder’s nominee in contravention of the representations with respect thereto required by this Section 1.10.
(C)    The chairman of any meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination was made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.10 (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee in compliance with the representations with respect thereto required by this Section 1.10), and if the chairman should determine that a nomination was not made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.10, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting and such nomination shall not be brought before the meeting. Without limiting the foregoing, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors shall also have the power to determine whether any nomination was made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.10 (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee in compliance with the representations with respect thereto required by this Section 1.10).

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(D)    Except as otherwise required by law, nothing in this Section 1.10 shall obligate the Corporation or the Board of Directors to include in any proxy statement or other stockholder communication distributed on behalf of the Corporation or the Board of Directors information with respect to any nominee for director submitted by a stockholder.
(E)    Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.10, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the meeting to present a nomination, such nomination shall not be brought before the meeting, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominee may have been received by the Corporation. For purposes of this Article I, to be considered a “qualified representative” of the stockholder, a person must be authorized by a written instrument executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such written instrument or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the written instrument or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.
(F)    For purposes of this Article I, “public disclosure” shall include disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
(G)    Notwithstanding anything in this Section 1.10 to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors at any annual meeting is increased effective after the time period for which nominations would otherwise be due under Section 1.10(B) and there is no public disclosure by the Corporation naming the nominees for the additional directorships at least one hundred (100) days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by Section 1.10(B) with respect nominations for such annual meeting shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for the additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth day following the day on which such public disclosure is first made by the Corporation.

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1.11    Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting.
(A)    At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business (other than the nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors) must constitute a proper matter for stockholder action and must be (i) specified in a notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any duly authorized committee thereof, (ii) if not specified in a notice of meeting, otherwise brought before the meeting by the Board of Directors or any duly authorized committee thereof or the Chairman of the Board or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder who (A) (1) was a stockholder of record of the Corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 1.11 and at the time of the meeting, (2) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (3) has complied with this Section 1.11 in all applicable respects or (B) properly made such proposal in compliance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act. The foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. Notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, unless otherwise required by law, if a stockholder seeking to bring business before an annual meeting pursuant to clause (iii) of this Section 1.11(A) (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the meeting to present the proposed business, such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such proposed business may have been received by the Corporation.
(B)    Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the Corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 1.11. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the Corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting (which date of the preceding year’s annual meeting shall, for purposes of the Corporation’s first annual meeting of stockholders after the initial public offering of the shares of Class A Common Stock of the Corporation, be deemed to have occurred on the date on May 15, 2019); provided, however, that if the date of the annual

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meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than seventy (70) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not later than the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or, if later, the tenth day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.
(C)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 1.11, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(i)    As to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (A) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the Corporation’s books and records); and (B) the class(es) and series and number of shares of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record and beneficially owned (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the Corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) and (B) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);
(ii)    As to each Proposing Person, (A) the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any “derivative security” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(c) under the Exchange Act) that constitutes a “call equivalent position” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(b) under the Exchange Act) (“Synthetic Equity Position”) and that is, directly or indirectly, held or maintained by such Proposing Person with respect to any shares of any class(es) or series of shares of the Corporation; provided that, for the purposes of the definition of “Synthetic Equity Position,” the term “derivative security” shall also include any security or instrument that would not otherwise constitute a “derivative security” as a result of any feature that would make any conversion, exercise or similar right or privilege of such security or instrument becoming determinable only at some future date or upon the

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happening of a future occurrence, in which case the determination of the amount of securities into which such security or instrument would be convertible or exercisable shall be made assuming that such security or instrument is immediately convertible or exercisable at the time of such determination; and, provided, further, that any Proposing Person satisfying the requirements of Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act (other than a Proposing Person that so satisfies Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act solely by reason of Rule 13d-1(b)(1)(ii)(E)) shall not be deemed to hold or maintain the notional amount of any securities that underlie a Synthetic Equity Position held by such Proposing Person as a hedge with respect to a bona fide derivatives trade or position of such Proposing Person arising in the ordinary course of such Proposing Person's business as a derivatives dealer, (B) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of shares of the Corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation, (C) any material pending or threatened legal proceeding in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the Corporation or any of its officers or directors, or any affiliate of the Corporation, (D) any other material relationship between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the Corporation and any affiliate of the Corporation, on the other hand, (E) any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement of such Proposing Person with the Corporation or any affiliate of the Corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (F) a representation that such stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business, (G) a representation that such Proposing Person intends or is part of a group which intends to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal and (H) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be

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made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (G) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and
(iii)    As to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (A) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these Bylaws, the language of the proposed amendment), and (C) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other record or beneficial holder(s) of shares of capital stock of the Corporation or persons(s) who have a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future of the shares of any class or series of the Corporation (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder; and (D) any other information relating to such item of business that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, that the disclosures required by this paragraph (iii) shall not include any disclosures with respect to any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.
For purposes of this Section 1.11, the term “Proposing Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be

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brought before the annual meeting is made, and (iii) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such stockholder in such solicitation.
(D)    A Proposing Person shall update and supplement its notice to the Corporation of its intent to propose business at an annual meeting, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 1.11 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the Corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.
(E)    Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting that is not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 1.11. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether any proposed business was brought in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.11, and if the chairman should determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 1.11, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted. Without limiting the foregoing, in advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors shall also have the power to

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determine whether any proposed business was made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.11.
(F)    This Section 1.11 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders other than any proposal made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and included in the Corporation’s proxy statement. In addition to the requirements of this Section 1.11 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Section 1.11 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.
1.12    Conduct of Meetings.
(A)    Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the Chairman’s absence by the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the Vice Chairman’s absence by the Chief Executive Officer, or in the Chief Executive Officer’s absence, by the President, or in the President’s absence by a Vice President, or in the absence of all of the foregoing persons by a chairman designated by the Board. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the Secretary’s absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.
(B)    The Board may adopt by resolution such rules, regulations and procedures for the conduct of any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation as it shall deem appropriate including, without limitation, such guidelines and procedures as it may deem appropriate regarding the participation by means of remote communication of stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules, regulations and procedures as adopted by the Board, the chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation,

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the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as shall be determined; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.
(C)    The chairman of the meeting shall announce at the meeting when the polls for each matter to be voted upon at the meeting will be opened and closed. After the polls close, no ballots, proxies or votes or any revocations or changes thereto may be accepted.
(D)    In advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer shall appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is present, ready and willing to act at a meeting of stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Unless otherwise required by law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the Corporation. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of such inspector’s duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability. The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and, when the vote is completed, shall certify their determination of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by law. Every vote taken by ballots shall be counted by a duly appointed inspector or duly appointed inspectors.
1.13    No Action by Consent in Lieu of a Meeting. Stockholders of the Corporation may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting.

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ARTICLE II
DIRECTORS
2.1    General Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board, who may exercise all of the powers of the Corporation except as otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation.
2.2    Number, Election, Term and Qualification. The total number of directors constituting the Board shall be as fixed in, or in the manner provided by, the Certificate of Incorporation. Election of directors need not be by written ballot. The term of office of each director shall be as specified in the Certificate of Incorporation.
2.3    Chairman of the Board; Vice Chairman of the Board. The Board may appoint from its members a Chairman of the Board and a Vice Chairman of the Board, neither of whom need be an employee or officer of the Corporation. If the Board appoints a Chairman of the Board, such Chairman shall perform such duties and possess such powers as are assigned by the Board and, if the Chairman of the Board is also designated as the Corporation’s Chief Executive Officer, shall have the powers and duties of the Chief Executive Officer prescribed in Section 3.7 of these Bylaws. If the Board appoints a Vice Chairman of the Board, such Vice Chairman shall perform such duties and possess such powers as are assigned by the Board. Unless otherwise provided by the Board, the Chairman of the Board or, in the Chairman’s absence, the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board.
2.4    Terms of Office. Directors shall be elected for such terms and in the manner provided by the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. The term of each director shall continue until the election and qualification of his or her successor and be subject to his or her earlier death, resignation, disqualification or removal.
2.5    Quorum. The greater of (a) a majority of the directors at any time in office and (b) one-third of the number of directors established by the Board pursuant to Section 2.2 of these Bylaws shall constitute a quorum of the Board. If at any meeting of the Board there shall be less

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than a quorum, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.
2.6    Action at Meeting. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present shall be regarded as the act of the Board, unless a greater number is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.
2.7    Removal. Directors of the Corporation may be removed in the manner specified by the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law.
2.8    Newly Created Directorships; Vacancies. Any newly created directorship or vacancy on the Board, however occurring, shall be filled in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law.
2.9    Resignation. Any director may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation. Such resignation shall be effective upon delivery unless it is specified to be effective at some later time or upon the happening of some later event.
2.10    Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board may be held without notice at such time and place as shall be determined from time to time by the Board; provided that any director who is absent when such a determination is made shall be given notice of the determination. A regular meeting of the Board may be held without notice immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders.
2.11    Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, or by one director in the event that there is only a single director in office.
2.12    Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of the date, place and time of any special meeting of the Board shall be given to each director (a) in person or by telephone at least twenty-four (24) hours in advance of the meeting, (b) by sending written notice by reputable overnight courier, telecopy, facsimile, electronic mail or other means of electronic transmission, or delivering written notice by hand, to such director’s last known business, home or means of electronic transmission

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address at least twenty-four (24) hours in advance of the meeting, or (c) by sending written notice by first-class mail to such director’s last known business or home address at least seventy-two (72) hours in advance of the meeting. Such notice may be given by the Secretary or by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or one of the directors calling the meeting. A notice or waiver of notice of a meeting of the Board need not specify the purposes of the meeting.
2.13    Meetings by Conference Communications Equipment. Directors may participate in meetings of the Board or any committee thereof by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.
2.14    Action by Consent. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board or committee, as the case may be, consent to the action in writing or by electronic transmission.
2.15    Committees. The Board may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation with such lawfully delegable powers and duties as the Board thereby confers, to serve at the pleasure of the Board. The Board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members of the committee present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board and subject to the provisions of law, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it. Each such committee shall keep minutes and make such reports as the Board may from time to time request. Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or the resolution of the Board designating the committee, a committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee

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to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.
2.16    Compensation of Directors. Directors may be paid such compensation for their services and such reimbursement for expenses of attendance at meetings as the Board may from time to time determine. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation or any of its parent or subsidiary entities in any other capacity and receiving compensation for such service.
ARTICLE III
OFFICERS
3.1    Titles. The officers of the Corporation may consist of a Chief Executive Officer, a President, a Chief Financial Officer, a Treasurer and a Secretary and such other officers with such other titles as the Board shall from time to time determine. The Board may appoint such other officers, including one or more Vice Presidents and one or more Assistant Treasurers or Assistant Secretaries, as it may deem appropriate from time to time.
3.2    Election. The Chief Executive Officer, President, Treasurer and Secretary shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors at its first meeting following the annual meeting of stockholders. Other officers may be appointed by the Board of Directors at such meeting or at any other meeting.
3.3    Qualification. No officer need be a stockholder. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person.
3.4    Tenure. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws, each officer shall hold office until such officer’s successor is duly elected and qualified, unless a different term is specified in the resolution electing or appointing such officer, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation, disqualification or removal.
3.5    Resignation and Removal. Any officer may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation. Such resignation shall be effective upon

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receipt unless it is specified to be effective at some later time or upon the happening of some later event. Any officer may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office. Except as the Board may otherwise determine, no officer who resigns or is removed shall have any right to any compensation as an officer for any period following such officer’s resignation or removal, or any right to damages on account of such removal, whether such officer’s compensation be by the month or by the year or otherwise, unless such compensation is expressly provided for in a duly authorized written agreement with the Corporation.
3.6    Vacancies. The Board may fill any vacancy occurring in any office. Each such successor shall hold office for the unexpired term of such officer’s predecessor and until a successor is duly elected and qualified, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation, disqualification or removal.
3.7    President; Chief Executive Officer. Unless the Board has designated another person as the Corporation’s Chief Executive Officer, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. The Chief Executive Officer shall have general charge and supervision of the business of the Corporation subject to the direction of the Board, and shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of chief executive or that are delegated to such officer by the Board. The President shall perform such other duties and shall have such other powers as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer (if the President is not the Chief Executive Officer) may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Chief Executive Officer or the President (if the President is not the Chief Executive Officer), the Vice President (or if there shall be more than one, the Vice Presidents in the order determined by the Board) shall perform the duties of the Chief Executive Officer and when so performing such duties shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Chief Executive Officer.
3.8    Vice Presidents. Each Vice President shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe. The Board may assign to any Vice President the title of Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President or any other title selected by the Board.

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3.9    Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The Secretary shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as the Board or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe. In addition, the Secretary shall perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of the secretary, including without limitation the duty and power to give notices of all meetings of stockholders and special meetings of the Board, to attend all meetings of stockholders and the Board and keep a record of the proceedings, to maintain a stock ledger and prepare lists of stockholders and their addresses as required, to be custodian of corporate records and the corporate seal and to affix and attest to the same on documents.
Any Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the Secretary may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Secretary, the Assistant Secretary (or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary.
In the absence of the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary at any meeting of stockholders or directors, the chairman of the meeting shall designate a temporary secretary to keep a record of the meeting.
3.10    Treasurer and Assistant Treasurers. The Treasurer shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as may from time to time be assigned by the Board or the Chief Executive Officer. In addition, the Treasurer shall perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of treasurer, including without limitation the duty and power to keep and be responsible for all funds and securities of the Corporation, to deposit funds of the Corporation in depositories selected in accordance with these Bylaws, to disburse such funds as ordered by the Board, to make proper accounts of such funds, and to render as required by the Board statements of all such transactions and of the financial condition of the Corporation.
The Assistant Treasurers shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the Treasurer may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Treasurer, the Assistant Treasurer (or if there shall be more

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than one, the Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer.
3.11    Salaries. Officers of the Corporation shall be entitled to such salaries, compensation or reimbursement as shall be fixed or allowed from time to time by the Board.
3.12    Delegation of Authority. The Board may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
ARTICLE IV
CAPITAL STOCK
4.1    Stock Certificates; Uncertificated Shares. The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of the Corporation’s stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Every holder of stock of the Corporation represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate, in such form as may be prescribed by law and by the Board, representing the number of shares held by such holder registered in certificate form. Each such certificate shall be signed in a manner that complies with Section 158 of the DGCL, and each officer appointed pursuant to Article III shall be an authorized officer for this purpose.
Each certificate for shares of stock which are subject to any restriction on transfer pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, applicable securities laws or any agreement among any number of stockholders or among such holders and the Corporation shall have conspicuously noted on the face or back of the certificate either the full text of the restriction or a statement of the existence of such restriction.
If the Corporation shall be authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of each certificate representing shares of such class or series of stock, provided that in lieu of

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the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of each certificate representing shares of such class or series of stock a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.
Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated shares, the registered owner thereof shall be given a notice, in writing or by electronic transmission, containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to Sections 151, 156, 202(a) or 218(a) of the DGCL or, with respect to Section 151 of the DGCL, a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.
4.2    Transfers. Shares of stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law, the Certificate of Incorporation and in these Bylaws. Transfers of shares of stock of the Corporation shall be made only on the books of the Corporation or by transfer agents designated to transfer shares of stock of the Corporation. Subject to applicable law, shares of stock represented by certificates shall be transferred only on the books of the Corporation by the surrender to the Corporation or its transfer agent of the certificate representing such shares properly endorsed or accompanied by a written assignment or power of attorney properly executed, and with such proof of authority or the authenticity of signature as the Corporation or its transfer agent may reasonably require. Except as may be otherwise required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws, the Corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the right to vote with respect to such stock, regardless of any transfer, pledge or other disposition of such stock until the shares have been transferred on the books of the Corporation in accordance with the requirements of these Bylaws.
4.3    Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates. The Corporation may issue a new certificate or uncertificated shares in place of any previously issued certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen

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or destroyed, upon such terms and conditions as the Board may prescribe, including the presentation of reasonable evidence of such loss, theft or destruction and the giving of such indemnity and posting of such bond sufficient to indemnify the Corporation against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.
4.4    Record Date. The Board may fix in advance a date as a record date for the determination of the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action. Such record date shall not precede the date on which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and such record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action to which such record date relates. If the Board so fixes a record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination.
If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day before the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day before the day on which the meeting is held. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any other purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating to such purpose.
A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

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4.5    Regulations. The issue, conversion and registration of shares of stock of the Corporation shall be governed by such other regulations as the Board may establish.
ARTICLE V
GENERAL PROVISIONS
5.1    Fiscal Year. Except as from time to time otherwise designated by the Board, the fiscal year of the Corporation shall begin on the first day of January of each year and end on the last day of December in each year.
5.2    Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall be in such form as shall be approved by the Board.
5.3    Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws, a written waiver signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before, at or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice required to be given to such person. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in any such waiver. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
5.4    Voting of Securities. Except as the Board may otherwise designate, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer may waive notice, vote, consent, or appoint any person or persons to waive notice, vote or consent, on behalf of the Corporation, and act as, or appoint any person or persons to act as, proxy or attorney-in-fact for the Corporation (with or without power of substitution and re-substitution), with respect to the securities of any other entity which may be held by this Corporation.
5.5    Evidence of Authority. A certificate by the Secretary, or an Assistant Secretary, or a temporary Secretary, as to any action taken by the stockholders, directors, a committee or any

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officer or representative of the Corporation shall as to all persons who rely on the certificate in good faith be conclusive evidence of such action.
5.6    Certificate of Incorporation. All references in these Bylaws to the Certificate of Incorporation shall be deemed to refer to the Certificate of Incorporation of the Corporation, as amended and/or restated and in effect from time to time, including any certificate of designation relating to any outstanding series of preferred stock.
5.7    Severability. Any determination that any provision of these Bylaws is for any reason inapplicable, illegal or ineffective shall not affect or invalidate any other provision of these Bylaws.
5.8    Pronouns. All pronouns used in these Bylaws shall be deemed to refer to the masculine, feminine or neuter, singular or plural, as the identity of the person or persons may require.
5.9    Electronic Transmission. For purposes of these Bylaws, “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
ARTICLE VI
AMENDMENTS
These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new Bylaws may be adopted by the Board or by the stockholders as expressly provided in the Certificate of Incorporation.
ARTICLE VII
INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCEMENT
7.1    Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 7.3, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer

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of the Corporation, or, while a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was unlawful.
7.2    Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 7.3, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or, while a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

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7.3    Authorization of Indemnification. Any indemnification under this Article VII (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 7.1 or Section 7.2, as the case may be. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion or (iv) by the stockholders. Such determination shall be made, with respect to former directors and officers, by any person or persons having the authority to act on the matter on behalf of the Corporation. To the extent, however, that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding set forth in Section 7.1 or Section 7.2 or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific case.
7.4    Good Faith Defined. For purposes of any determination under Section 7.3, a person shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful, if such person’s action is based on good faith reliance on the records or books of account of the Corporation or another enterprise, or on information supplied to such person by the officers of the Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another enterprise. The term “another enterprise” as used in this Section 7.4 shall mean any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of

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which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent. The provisions of this Section 7.4 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 7.1 or 7.2, as the case may be.
7.5    Right of Claimant to Bring Suit. Notwithstanding any contrary determination in the specific case under Section 7.3, and notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, if (i) following the final disposition of the applicable proceeding, a claim for indemnification under Sections 7.1 or 7.2 of this Article VII is not paid in full by the Corporation within ninety (90) days after the later of a written claim for indemnification has been received by the Corporation, or (ii) a claim for advancement of expenses under Section 7.6 of this Article VII is not paid in full by the Corporation within thirty (30) days after the Corporation has received a statement or statements requesting such amounts to be advanced, the claimant may at any time thereafter (but not before) bring suit against the Corporation in the Court of Chancery in the State of Delaware to recover the unpaid amount of the claim, together with interest thereon, or to obtain advancement of expenses, as applicable. It shall be a defense to any such action brought to enforce a right to indemnification (but not in an action brought to enforce a right to an advancement of expenses) that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct which make it permissible under the DGCL (or other applicable law) for the Corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed, but the burden of proving such defense shall be on the Corporation. Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under Section 7.3 nor the absence of any determination thereunder shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the claimant has not met any applicable standard of conduct. If successful, in whole or in part, the claimant shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim, including reasonable attorneys’ fees incurred in connection therewith, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.
7.6    Expenses Payable in Advance. Expenses, including without limitation attorneys’ fees, incurred by a current or former director or officer in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding to which such person is a party or is threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or, while a director or officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request

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of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such current or former director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article VII or otherwise.
7.7    Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The rights to indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by or granted pursuant to this Article VII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the Certificate of Incorporation, any agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that, subject to Section 7.11, indemnification of the persons specified in Sections 7.1 and 7.2 shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. The provisions of this Article VII shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 7.1 or 7.2 but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the DGCL, or otherwise.
7.8    Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article VII.
7.9    Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Article VII, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, employees

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or agents so that any person who is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation, or, while a director or officer of such constituent corporation, is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VII with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued. For purposes of this Article VII, references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect of any employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article VII.
7.10    Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VII shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
7.11    Limitation on Indemnification. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VII to the contrary, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification or advancement of expenses (which shall be governed by Section 7.5), the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any current or former director or officer in connection with an action, suit proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such action, suit or proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board.
7.12    Contract Rights. The obligations of the Corporation under this Article VII to indemnify, and advance expenses to, a person who is or was a director or officer of the Corporation shall be considered a contract between the Corporation and such person, and no modification or repeal of any provision of this Article VII shall affect, to the detriment of such person, such

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obligations of the Corporation in connection with a claim based on any act or failure to act occurring before such modification or repeal.

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